One of the most important things you can do as a customer to ensure the security of your resources is to maintain careful control over who has access to them. This is especially true if any of your AWS users have programmatic access. Programmatic access allows you to invoke actions on your AWS resources either through an application that you write or through a third-party tool. You use an access key ID and a secret access key to sign your requests for authorization to AWS. Programmatic access can be quite powerful, so implementing best practices to protect access key IDs and secret access keys is important in order to prevent accidental or malicious account activity. In this post, I’ll highlight some general guidelines to help you protect your account, as well as some of the options you have when you need to provide programmatic access to your AWS resources.
Protect your root account
Your AWS root account—the account that’s created when you initially sign up with AWS—has unrestricted access to all your AWS resources. There’s no way to limit permissions on a root account. For this reason, AWS always recommends that you do not generate access keys for your root account. This would give your users the power to do things like close the entire account—an ability that they probably don’t need. Instead, you should create individual AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users, then grant each user permissions based on the principle of least privilege: Grant them only the permissions required to perform their assigned tasks. To more easily manage the permissions of multiple IAM users, you should assign users with the same permissions to an IAM group.
Your root account should always be protected by Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA). This additional layer of security helps protect against unauthorized logins to your account by requiring two factors: something you know (a password) and something you have (for example, an MFA device). AWS supports virtual and hardware MFA devices and U2F security keys.
Decide how to grant access to your AWS account
To allow users access to the AWS Management Console and AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), you have two options. The first one is to create identities and allow users to log in using a username and password managed by the IAM service. The second approach is to use federation
to allow your users to use their existing corporate credentials to log into the AWS console and CLI.
Each approach has its use cases. Federation is generally better for enterprises that have an existing central directory or plan to need more than the current limit of 5,000 IAM users.
Note: Access to all AWS accounts is managed by AWS IAM. Regardless of the approach you choose, make sure to familiarize yourself with and follow IAM best practices.
Decide when to use access keys
Applications running outside of an AWS environment will need access keys for programmatic access to AWS resources. For example, monitoring tools running on-premises and third-party automation tools will need access keys.
However, if the resources that need programmatic access are running inside AWS, the best practice is to use IAM roles instead. An IAM role is a defined set of permissions—it’s not associated with a specific user or group. Instead, any trusted entity can assume the role to perform a specific business task.
By utilizing roles, you can grant a resource access without hardcoding an access key ID and secret access key into the configuration file. For example, you can grant an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instance access to an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket by attaching a role with a policy that defines this access to the EC2 instance. This approach improves your security, as IAM will dynamically manage the credentials for you with temporary credentials that are rotated automatically.
Grant least privileges to service accounts
If you decided to create service accounts (that is, accounts used for programmatic access by applications running outside of the AWS environment) and generate access keys for them, you should create a dedicated service account for each use case. This will allow you to restrict the associated policy to only the permissions needed for the particular use case, limiting the blast radius if the credentials are compromised. For example, if a monitoring tool and a release management tool both require access to your AWS environment, create two separate service accounts with two separate policies that define the minimum set of permissions for each tool.
In addition to this, it’s also a best practice to add conditions to the policy that further restrict access—such as restricting access to only the source IP address range of your clients.
Below is an example policy that represents least privileges. It grants the needed permissions (PutObject) on to a specific resource (an S3 bucket named “examplebucket”) while adding further conditions (the client must come from IP range 203.0.113.0/24).
Use temporary credentials from AWS STS
AWS Security Token Service (AWS STS) is a web service that enables you to request temporary credentials for use in your code, CLI, or third-party tools. It allows you to assume an IAM role with which you have a trusted relationship and then generate temporary, time-limited credentials based on the permissions associated with the role. These credentials can only be used during the validity period, which reduces your risk.
There are two ways to generate temporary credentials. You can generate them from the CLI, which is helpful when you need credentials for testing from your local machine or from an on-premises or third-party tool. You can also generate them from code using one of the AWS SDKs. This approach is helpful if you need credentials in your application, or if you have multiple user types that require different permission levels.
Create temporary credentials using the CLI
If you have access to the AWS CLI, you can use it to generate temporary credentials with limited permissions to use in your local testing or with third-party tools. To be able to use this approach, here’s what you need:
- Access to the AWS CLI through your primary user account or through federation. To learn how to configure CLI access using your IAM credentials, follow this link. If you use federation, you still can use the CLI by following the instructions in this blog post.
- An IAM role that represents the permissions needed for your test client. In the example below, I use “s3-read”. This role should have a policy attached that grants the least privileges needed for the use case.
- A trusted relationship between the service role (“s3-read”) and your user account, to allow you to assume the service role and generate temporary credentials. Visit this link for the steps to create this trust relationship.
The example command below will generate a temporary access key ID and secret access key that are valid for 15 minutes, based on permissions associated with the role named “s3-read”. You can replace the values below with your own account number, service role, and duration, then use the secret access key and access key ID in your local clients.
Here are my results from running the command:
Create temporary credentials from your code
If you have an application that already uses the AWS SDK, you can use AWS STS to generate temporary credentials right from the code instead of hard-coding credentials into your configurations. This approach is recommended if you have client-side code that requires credentials, or if you have multiple types of users (for example, admins, power-users, and regular users) since it allows you to avoid hardcoding multiple sets of credentials for each user type.
For more information about using temporary credentials from the AWS SDK, visit this link.
Utilize Access Advisor
The IAM console provides information about when an AWS service was last accessed by different principals. This information is called service last accessed data.
Using this tool, you can view when an IAM user, group, role, or policy last attempted to access services to which they have permissions. Based on this information, you can decide if certain permissions need to be revoked or restricted further.
Make this tool part of your periodic security check. Use it to evaluate the permissions of all your IAM entities and to revoke unused permissions until they’re needed. You can also automate the process of periodic permissions evaluation using Access Advisor APIs. If you want to learn how, this blog post is a good starting point.
Other tools for credentials management
While least privilege access and temporary credentials are important, it’s equally important that your users are managing their credentials properly—from rotation to storage. Below is a set of services and features that can help to securely store, retrieve, and rotate credentials.
AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store
AWS Systems Manager offers a capability called Parameter Store that provides secure, centralized storage for configuration parameters and secrets across your AWS account. You can store plain text or encrypted data like configuration parameters, credentials, and license keys. Once stored, you can configure granular access to specify who can obtain these parameters in your application, adding another layer of security to protect your data.
Parameter store is a good choice for use cases in which you need hierarchical storage for configuration data management across your account. For example, you can store database access credentials (username and password) in parameter store, encrypt them with an encryption key managed by AWS Key Management Service, and grant EC2 instances running your application permissions to read and decrypt those credentials.
For more information on using AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store, visit this link.
AWS Secrets Manager
AWS Secrets Manager is a service that allows you to centrally manage the lifecycle of secrets used in your organization, including rotation, audits, and access control. By enabling you to rotate secrets automatically, Secrets Manager can help you meet your security and compliance requirements. Secrets Manager also offers built-in integration for MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Amazon Aurora on Amazon RDS and can be extended to other services.
For more information about using AWS Secrets Manager to store and retrieve secrets, visit this link.
Amazon Cognito lets you add user registration, sign-in, and access management features to your web and mobile applications.
Cognito can be used as an Identity Provider (IdP), where it stores and maintains users and credentials securely for your applications, or it can be integrated with OpenID Connect, SAML, and other popular web identity providers like Amazon.com.
Using Amazon Cognito, you can generate temporary access credentials for your clients to access AWS services, eliminating the need to store long-term credentials in client applications.
To learn more about using Amazon Cognito as an IdP, visit our developer guide to Amazon Cognito User Pools. If you’re interested in information about using Amazon Cognito with a third party IdP, review our guide to Amazon Cognito Identity Pools (Federated Identities).
AWS Trusted Advisor
AWS Trusted Advisor is a service that provides a real-time review of your AWS account and offers guidance on how to optimize your resources to reduce cost, increase performance, expand reliability, and improve security.
The “Security” section of AWS Trusted Advisor should be reviewed on regular basis to evaluate the health of your AWS account. Currently, there are multiple security specific checks that occur—from IAM access keys that haven’t been rotated to insecure security groups. Trusted Advisor is a tool to help you more easily perform a daily or weekly review of your AWS account.
, available from the AWS Labs GitHub account, helps you avoid committing passwords and other sensitive credentials to a git repository. It scans commits, commit messages, and –no-ff merges to prevent your users from inadvertently adding secrets to your repositories.
In this blog post, I’ve introduced some options to replace long-term credentials in your applications with temporary access credentials that can be generated using various tools and services on the AWS platform. Using temporary credentials can reduce the risk of falling victim to a compromised environment, further protecting your business.
I also discussed the concept of least privilege and provided some helpful services and procedures to maintain and audit the permissions given to various identities in your environment.
If you have questions or feedback about this blog post, submit comments in the Comments section below, or contact AWS Support.
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